– When was the last time you met someone who you hadn’t seen for ages?
– What did you talk about? Had he/she changed a lot?
1. What type of friend is each person talking about in the sentences below? Match each sentence with a person given below.
acquaintance / fair-weather friend / fellow student / flat mate / girlfriend / mutual friend / old friend / travel companion / true friend / workmate
1) We’re not close friends – we’re just studying French in the same evening class. _________
2) I live with Sarah, but each of us has our own circle of friends that we hang out with. ____ ___________________________________________________________________________
3) Olivia and I went on a trip to Peru together ten years ago and we’ve kept up with each other ever since. __________________________________________________________________
4) I wouldn’t say we were friends really. We’ve met a couple of times at parties. __________
5) Oh, do you know Tom? He’s a good friend of mine too. We should all meet up some time. __ ___________________________________________________________________________
6) Jacob always hangs around when he’s bored, but he never comes round when he’s got something better to do. _______________________________________________________
7) Kate has always stood by me in times of difficulty. If ever I’m in trouble, I know I can rely on her for help. _____________________________________________________________
8) Colin and I have been teaching at the same school for years. We get on very well, even though we never really see each other socially. I think I’ve been round to his house once. __ ___________________________________________________________________________
9) Barney and I have known each other since we were at school. It doesn’t matter if we haven’t seen each other for a while; we just seem to pick up where we left off. _________________
10) Jessica and I are going to a medieval-style wedding. Themed weddings are becoming very fashionable.________________________________________________________________
2. Read the expressions, which you usually use meeting people on the street. Discuss them with the class and divide them into the following categories.
|1) expressing surprise at meeting:|
2) asking for news:
3) telling about appearance:
4) describing business:
5) telling about a mutual friend:
6) saying there is no possibility to carry on the conversation:
a) Fancy meeting/seeing you here! / What a (nice) surprise!
b) How are things? / How are you doing?
c) What have you been up to? / How’s it all going?
d) Busy as ever. / I’ve been completely snowed under...
e) It has its ups and downs. / It goes up/down.
f) You look well! / It sounds good!
g) Do you see much of Amanda? / How’s Amanda getting on?
h) She was asking after you the other day.
i) Give her my regards. / Say hello to her from me.
j) Well, I should probably go and … / I don’t mean to be rude, but I need to …
k) Sorry, I’ve got to rush. / I’m in a bit of a hurry.
l) It was really nice to see you. / Good luck with ...
3. Look through the phrasal verbs given below. Try to explain their meaning. Complete the sentences using the appropriate phrasal verbs.
1) come over/round
2) come across
3) bump into
4) stop by
5) meet up (with)
6) hang out (with)
a) Tim _____ for dinner the other night.
b) I _____ a word I’d never seen before.
c) I _____ your mother at the supermarket.
d) I was passing your house, so I thought I’d _____ for a chat.
e) We usually _____ for a quick coffee in the morning.
f) Who is he _____ with these days?
4. Imagine you are in a large shopping centre during your lunch break. Stand up and move around the classroom “bumping into” other students. Pretend you have met before, but haven’t seen each other for some time. Ask the person how his/her things were going and make some future arrangements together. Then move on until you bump into someone else. Use the expressions from the previous exercises to help you organize your dialogue.
5. What do you think are the main rules of etiquette? Are they similar or different around the world? Do you know how to behave when meeting people abroad? Read the text and check it out. Which rules might be considered common for Ukraine?
What is socially acceptable? You probably know your own country’s social norms and how to interact with people. But what is normal in your country may not be in others, and vice-versa. It’s a big world out there and the beauty of all those different countries is that each one has its own customs and traditions. Often they can be quite different to what we are used to, but that’s the beauty of travelling! So we invite you to check out our guide to social etiquette and customs in different countries.
FRANCE: How many times to kiss? In France, greeting your French friends can be a complicated matter for foreigners. Rather than shaking hands, waving hello or hugging, you lean forward, touch cheeks and kiss the air while making a kissing sound with your lips. They greet friends and family with kisses everywhere, on the streets, in supermarkets, at the gym, at work, etc. There’s no stopping them – It’s called “La Bise”.
INDIA: Don’t touch someone of the opposite gender in public. In many parts of India, touching someone of the opposite sex in public is considered off-limits. This includes even shaking hands and especially displays of love between married couples. This takes the expression “get a room”, which means they’d better find some other place for themselves.
JAPAN: Don’t tip! If you’re used to ordering out and deciding if you should leave a 15 percent or 20 percent tip, you don’t have to worry about that in Japan because it is considered extremely impolite to tip. This includes restaurants, cabs, and more. Save your money in Japan.
ITALY: When in Rome, do as the Romans do! It’s important to insist that you don’t want any more food once you are full, otherwise your food will keep being topped up. The same goes for your glass of wine – it’s considered impolite to refuse! It’s also worth noting that the Italians are fond of an afternoon nap after lunch, with many businesses shutting for an hour or two between 1 p.m. and 4 p.m.
SAUDI ARABIA: Don’t blow your nose! While it is not healthy to hold your sneezes in, you might want to think twice about blowing your nose to relieve yourself from sneezing when travelling abroad. In Saudi Arabia, it is taboo to blow your nose in public. It is especially bad if you use a handkerchief.
CHINA: Don’t greet anyone by their first name. When addressing someone in China, it is rude to say their first name first. Calling someone with their last name first is the proper way to address someone in China because of the importance of family heritage.
GERMANY: No chewing gum while conversing. While it is fine to chew gum in Germany, be careful not to do so while in conversation. It is extremely rude to speak to someone in Germany while chewing gum or putting your hands in your pockets. Germans want your full and undivided attention.
6. Look through the text again and say whether the sentences are true (T) or false (F) according to the text.
1) In France it is quite ok to kiss people when you meet them for the first time.
2) People in India are not allowed to hug if they are not married.
3) In Japan the less tips you give the better; they don’t take anything for service.
4) Italians love to sleep during lunch time.
5) It is extremely impolite to blow your nose in the UAE.
6) In China you can’t interact on a first-name basis with unfamiliar people.
7) German people never chew gum or put their hands in pockets.
7. Look at the words in colour in the text and match them to their synonyms below.
8. Make up some sentences about social norms of public behaviour in Ukraine.
PAST SIMPLE [verb+ed] or irregular verbs
• Actions in the past taking place once at a definite time, never or several times.
• Past habits or states which are now finished.
• Action taking place one after another.
• Action taking place in the middle of another action.
yesterday, 2 minutes ago, in 1990, the other day, last Friday, “ifsentences” type II.
PAST CONTINUOUS [was/were + V-ing]
• Action going on at a certain time in the past.
• Actions taking place at the same time.
• Action in the past that was interrupted by another action.
• To describe the atmosphere, setting and give background information to a story.
when, while, as long as, from____to____ yesterday, the whole evening, all morning/ evening/day
PAST PERFECT [had + past participle]
• Action taking place before another action or a stated time in the past.
• Action which finished in the past and whose result was visible in the past
• Putting emphasis only on the act (not the duration).
Before, after, already, just, never, not yet, once, until that day, for, since, “if-sentences” type III, by the time
PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS [had + been +V-ing]
• Action taking place before a certain time in the past putting emphasis on the duration or course of an action.
• Action which lasted for some time in the past and whose result was visible in the past.
• Sometimes interchangeable with the past perfect.
for, since, how long, before, until, the whole day, all day, for 20 minutes, for 3 hours
9. Complete the sentences using past tenses, suitable in each case.
1) While we _____ (clean) the house, the boys _____ (prepare) dinner, so everything _____ (be) ready at the same time.
2) Italian immigrants _____ (live) in America for a long time. They _____ (arrive) in the 19th century and many of them _____ (establish) in New York.
3) It _____ (be) the worst storm we _____ ever _____ (have).
4) Everybody was very hungry and by the time we _____ (get) there the food _____ already _____ (disappear).
5) I _____ (dream) about true love for years when I finally _____ (meet) my husband!
6) What _____ (do) during your vacation? – We _____ (travel).
7) We _____ (not be) at home when you _____ (call) us last night.
8) When she _____ (open) her eyes she _____ (say) that she _____ (dream) of somewhere she _____ (be) before.
9) When the firemen _____ (arrive), the fire _____ (destroy) most of the house.
10. Choose the correct tense to fill in the blanks.
1) This happened about ten years ago. I _____ with a college friend, Ann, in the country.
|a) was staying||b) stayed||c) had stayed||d) have been staying|
|a) recently bought||b) have recently bought||c) had recently bought||d) had been buying|
|a) have been chatting||b) were chatting||c) chatted||d) had chatted|
|a) went shopping||b) had been shopping||c) had gone shopping||d) had been going shopping|
|a) have heard||b) had heard||c) heard||d) had been hearing|
|a) has forgotten||b) had forgotten||c) forgot||d) was forgetting|
|a) had carried on||b) were carrying on||c) have been carrying on||d) carried on|
|a) had seen||b) saw||с) had been seeing||d) seen|
11. Complete the text using the correct tense. Note, not only past tenses are possible here.
I 1) _____ (bore) in London, in the capital of England and I 2) _____ (live) there until I 3) _____ (leave) home at the age of 18. My parents 4) _____ (move) to England from China in the 1970s. As a child I 5) _____ (go) to the local school and, of course, 6) _____ (speak) English with a local accent, just like all the other children. But at home it was very different. We 7) _____ (live) in a Chinese environment, with a great extended family of uncles and aunts. I 8) _____ (remember) feeling part of this big thing called “family”, and an even bigger thing called “China”. I think my family really 9) _____ (influence) me a lot while I 10) _____ (grow) up. They often talked about China as “our home” – even though I had never 11) _____ (be) there before. To me, it 12) _____ (not, seem) at all strange to grow up as part of two cultures. I always 13) _____ (think) that growing up in two cultures is a kind of gift, not a disadvantage. Now that I 14) _____ (have) a child of my own, I want her to get in touch with her Chinese roots too, so we _____ (plan) a visit to China later this year. All her Chinese cousins and relatives 15) _____ (look) forward to meeting her.
12. Imagine you have been away from home for some time. Write an email to a friend or family member asking them for news from home and give them your news. Tell about something that happened to you during this period of time you were absent using the correct past tenses.
Матеріал до підручника Англійська мова 11 клас Нерсисян, Піроженко 2019