1. Match the words and phrases to their definitions. Make up sentences about the USAusing the given vocabulary.
2) American dream
4) culture shock
5) citizenship test
7) lingua franca
10) melting pot
11) country of origin
a) the state or quality of being varied or different
b) originating in and characteristic of a particular region or country
c) any language that is widely used as a means of communication among speakers of other languages
d) the country a person originally comes from
e) a test that people who are applying for citizenship of a country have to pass to become full citizens
f) is an opinion formed beforehand, especially an unfavourable one based on inadequate facts, may refer to a particular social group g) an environment in which many ideas and races are socially assimilated
h) a social system that provides separate facilities for minority groups
i) to live in peace with each other, especially as a matter of policy
j) the belief that everyone in the US has the chance to be successful and happy if they work hard
k) it is a disorientation of a person when visiting a new country either as a tourist or immigrant
2. Look at the pictures, where do you think all these people are coming to and why? Read the fact sheet and check your answer.
Fact sheet. “Welcome to the Land of Freedom,” is an illustration of immigrants on board the steamer Germanic from Frank Leslie’s illustrated newspaper, July 2, 1887. Ellis Island was the place where immigrants landed in New York City before entering American soil.
Ellis Island is part of New York City. It is the place where 12 to 20 million immigrants to the United States were processed from 1892 to 1954. The selection process followed a certain number of strict rules. Only the wealthy immigrants who had travelled first class were automatically accepted. Now Ellis Island is a museum devoted to the history of immigration
3. What do you think the American Dream is? Do you think it can become a reality today? Read the text about the American Dream and describe how many concepts of it are mentioned there?
Every American understands the meaning of “the American Dream”, as no other people have its national dream. It has become an important part of their identity. Today the Dream seems to mean that anything is possible if you really want it, but we decided to find out the initial concept of the American Dream.
The Puritans, who came to New England in 1620, had their own dream. In England they had been well-educated and rich, but they did not agree with how the Anglican Church practised religion, so they left behind their comfortable lives and set out on a mission. These first Puritans were dreaming to start a new life and give their children a better future, and this was the heart of the American Dream.
By 1776 the new Americans had lived in the thirteen colonies for more than 150 years, but they still did not have their own government. The British took taxes and had authority over them. So, the colonists started American Revolution and fought for their American Dream: freedom to live the life they wanted. These democratic ideal was granted to the Americans by The Declaration of Independence. In fact, the new United States became an equal society only for the white men.
Since the times the meaning of the American Dream has changed significantly: from freedom and equality to a more material happiness. Although the Dream has always been about achieving a better life if you work hard enough and think positively. Americans love “rags-to-riches” stories about real people who have “made it big”. The biography of well-known Abraham Lincoln begins in a Kentucky log cabin and ends in the White House. Horatio Alger Jr.’s nineteenth-century novels depict characters’ success stories, as achieved through honest work and courage. In the 1930s, novelist John Steinbeck published “Of Mice and Men” in which the migrant laborers George and Lennie cling to their dream of owning a farm, even as they face brutal poverty. The 2006 film The Pursuit of Happiness tells the true story of Chris Gardner, who had been homeless and even in jail, before he finally grabbed at a chance and became one of the richest and most successful African-Americans on Wall Street.
Like the people who went to California to find gold in the 19th century, many Americans today hope to “strike it rich” in Las Vegas. Teenagers and adults also try to become rich and famous in the reality TV shows like American Idol or Big Brother. Some say that the American Dream has become the pursuit of material prosperity, when people work more hours to get bigger cars or fancier homes, but have lesser time to enjoy them. Others say that it’s impossible for the working poor who must do two jobs to insure their family’s survival. Yet others look toward a new American Dream with less focus on financial gain and more emphasis on living a simple and fulfilling life. How about your American Dream?
4. Read the sentences and correct the wrong ones according to the text.
1) The Dream is an expression of the Americans’ national identity.
2) Over the years of history the idea of the American Dream has always remained original.
3) All American citizens obtained the same rights and freedoms after the American Revolution.
4) To make your Dream come true, it is not only the efforts, but the attitude what also matters.
5) Nowadays most Americans are sceptical about the news of instant riches or success and claim it to be dreamlike.
6) People still cant leave the idea of money as the main for happiness.
5. Look through the words in colour in the text. Tell how you understand the meaning of the following phrases. Fill them into the appropriate sentences using the correct tense.
2) To strike it rich
3) To cling to a dream
4) Success story
5) Grab at a chance
6) Make it big
a) His father _____ in the diamond business.
b) You’re never going to _____ if you don’t put in the hard work.
c) The book is one of the publishing _____ of recent years
d) His life sounds to me like the classic _____ story.
e) We must _____ when it comes because it doesn’t come again.
f) She is proud to _____ for all her life.
6. Can you think of any well-known Americans and say what they were famous for? Who are these people from the photos? Have you heard of or read about them before? Listen to the recording and match the names of the outstanding Americans to their contributions. Whose do you think was the most significant and why?
1) Abraham Lincoln
2) Marilyn Monroe
3) Harriet Tubman
5) Martin Luther King, Jr.
6) Muhammad Ali
7) Elvis Presley
8) Neil Armstrong
9) Henry Ford
10) Ernest Hemingway
a) abolished slavery and kept the State strong and united in war
b) promoted peace between colonists and Native Americans
c) risked her life to help slaves escape from the South
d) established equality between black and white
e) encouraged freedom of belief and racial equality
f) was the founder and King of Rock-and-Roll
g) made a giant leap for mankind through a small step for a man
h) went through a difficult childhood to become one of the most famous movie stars and pop icons
i) invented the first affordable and mass-produced automobile
j) was one of the most influential authors
– WHO is used for people when the pronoun is the subject of the clause.
If it is the object it can be omitted: E.g.: The teacher who came to school this year is from Ireland.
– WHOM is used for people when the pronoun is the object of the clause (it can be omitted):
E.g.: The teacher (whom) you saw yesterday at school is from Ireland.
– WHOSE is used for the possessive case. Sometimes you can use “with” instead.
E.g.: The boy whose arm is broken is very clever. The boy with the broken arm is very clever.
– WHICH is used for things, subject or object of the clause. If it is the object it can be omitted.
E.g.: The book which is on the table is the one (which) you lent me.
– WHERE and WHEN are relative adverbs:
E.g.: That is the house where I lived when I was a child. Do you know the time when his plane takes off.
– THAT is more common for people and things, it can replace who or which in a defining clause; it is used for people and things, subject or object, also after superlatives and after indefinite pronouns (something, all, everything…etc.):
E.g.: He is the best football player that I’ve ever seen.
DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSE
is used to identify the person or thing.
E.g.: The man who is sitting next to Alex is a friend of mine.
The programme, which is about wild life, is on tonight. The relative pronoun can be omitted when it is the object of the clause.
E.g.: I bought the house (which) you saw the other day. That is the man (whom) I told you about the other day
NON-DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSE
doesn’t identify the people or things we are talking about, but gives additional information.
E.g.: Alex, who used to be a football player, is now a teacher at my school. Madrid, which is the city where I was born, is the capital of Spain.
They are placed between commas, or appear at the end.
In all cases a relative pronoun is required, it cannot be omitted.
7. Combine two sentences with who or which to make one sentence.
1) Football first started in Britain. It is now popular in many countries.
2) Margaret Thatcher was the Prime Minister of Britain for 11 years. She studied science at university.
3) The Nile runs through several countries. It is the longest river in Africa.
4) Gandhi was born in 1869. He became India’s nationalist leader.
5) Elephants are found in Africa and India. They live to a great age.
6) The sun is really a star. It is 93 million miles from the earth
7) John F Kennedy died in 1963. He was a very famous American President.
8) Charlie Chaplin was from a poor family. He became a very rich man.
9) Darwin travelled to many countries when he was young. His ideas changed our view of the world.
10) Sebastian Coe was a successful English runner. He is now a politician.
8. Complete the sentences using the relative pronouns who(m), that, which, where, when, whose.
1) The people _____ house I am staying at are very kind to me.
2) Is this the store _____ you said you bought the fishing equipment?
3) What I’m now going to tell you is something _____ you’ll never forget in your life.
4) The severe drought _____ occurred last summer ruined the crop.
5) The voters were overwhelmingly against the candidate _____ proposals called for higher taxes.
6) Here is the place _____ grandpa always used to talk about.
7) I live in China _____ is a densely populated country.
8) Tom teaches a class of students _____ native language is not French.
9) Yesterday, I ran into an old friend _____ I hadn’t seen for years.
10) Dan says he will always remember the day _____ his parents first bought him a bike for his birthday.
11) That’s the drawer _____ I keep my jewellery.
12) The town _____ I used to live in was not very big.
13) We don’t have a big enough room in _____ we can apply sample tests.
14) Why don’t you consult someone _____ has experienced the same troubles?
15) Here is a big thank you to all _____ contributed to this wonderful website.
9. Work in groups. Make a list of people, places, and events significant in the world’s history and prepare some sentences about them. Present the information to other groups, not saying the names, and let them guess what/whom you are talking about.
For example: The man, who was the first president of the USA. (George Washington)
10. Write an opinion essay: “American Idol” is a TV show for the people who want to become pop stars. The best singer becomes famous. In “Big Brother” people live in a house together for many weeks. The public vote and the most popular person wins – and hopes to become rich and famous. Would you go on “American Idol” or “Big Brother”? Why/not? Give reasons, write not less than 250 words.
Матеріал до підручника Англійська мова 11 клас Нерсисян, Піроженко 2019