-Look at the pictures and describe the issues they show.
1. What pollutes our environment? Match the word pairs from the two columns and use them to complete these sentences. There are some phrases you don’t need to use.
acid / carbon / disposable / solar / endangered / energy / ozone / oil / greenhouse / renewable / suitable / unleaded / bottle / fossil
conservation / bank / species / effect /petrol / energy / slick / products /rain / power / monoxide /layer / waste / fuel
1) The _____ screens out dangerous ultraviolet rays from the sun.
2) _____ stands beside collection points for other recyclable waste like paper, metals and plastics.
3) In recent times, agriculture has become a major _____ energy user.
4) _____ is the conversion of the sun’s energy into heat and electricity.
5) From October 1990 all new cars manufactured will have to be able to run on _____.
6) The _____ seriously threatens marine life around the islands.
7) _____ destroys trees and damages buildings.
8) _____ is a highly poisonous gas, mostly produced by cars.
9) Society should protect _____ from extinction.
10) Global warming is otherwise known as the _____.
2. What are the ways to fight, prevent or avoid? Match the environmental problems to their solutions.
1) Lots of poisonous factory emissions –
2) Electricity bills are too high –
3) High amounts of car exhaust fumes –
4) Too much litter in the streets –
5) Destruction of animal habitats by mining –
6) Growing number of endangered or extinct animals –
7) High exposure to toxic air contaminants causing health harms –
8) Illegal fishing and hunting –
9) Overconsumption of natural resources –
a) use unleaded petrol
b) impose fines for polluting public areas
c) restrict mining leases and encourage land reforestation
d) draw up laws to control factory waste disposal
e) save the wildlife habitats so that species can breed successfully
f) stop caring about material things too much
g) restrict public access to the areas and strengthen regulations
h) drive less, walk more
3. What do you think of the place you live in? What about the people? Does the way of life in your native area allows its citizens to keep the town (city) clean and safe? Is your community eco-friendly? Do you know any examples of eco-communities or ecovillages? Are there many in the world? How do you think people live there? What are their ways of going green? Read the article and check your answers.
Nowadays more than ever before people all over the planet are seeking new sustainable models for living. “Going green” – it’s a phrase that’s becoming more and more common as everyone starts to realize the enormity of the environmental challenges we all face. But what can ordinary people actually do to reduce their carbon footprint?
The green movements are catching on with lots of people in all parts of the world, but this is especially true in the construction industry. Purchasing an environmentallyfriendly home is a good investment for those who are concerned about their own health and the well-being of our planet. Based on this trend, entire districts, known as ecocommunities, are being designed. Their planners and builders have the environment in mind with every choice they make. They ensure proper ventilation and guarantee residents clean air indoors. Interior and exterior building materials, such as paints and wood, are natural and non-toxic.
Energy efficiency is one of the top priorities in eco-communities. Not only do energy-efficient appliances and light fixtures reduce the environmental impact of heating, cooking, and lighting, they also save residents money. Each resident has his/her own individual utility metres for electricity and gas, and studies show that people use around 20% less energy when they are billed for exactly what they use.
Eco-communities also take the future into account by recycling waste and reducing carbon emissions. In such communities, waste water is treated and reused on-site for flushing toilets, and a biomass gas plant converts waste wood into a renewable form of gas for hot water systems, stoves and gas heaters. The residents join the community’s car share program and use local suppliers for all their transport and utility needs.
Similar green communities are now found all over the world, especially smaller ones known as ecovillages or “intentional communities”. Most have 50 to 150 residents, all of whom are trying to create a future model for sensible living: in harmony with the environment, protecting vital natural systems, and fostering good relations with neighbours, both of the human and animal variety. They farm, garden and grow healthy organic food within their communities.
Findhorn in Scotland is one such ecovillage. It is internationally known as the home of the Findhorn Foundation – a self-reliant eco-friendly community based on shared values. People there promote, and live the vision of creating a better world by starting with themselves. Findhorn is a dynamic experiment; it is home to an award-winning reforestation project, Trees for Life. This is the largest intentional community in the United Kingdom, and has been measured as having the lightest ecological footprint of any community in the country.
4. Match the following definitions to the words in colour in the text.
1) a group of people who have chosen to live together with a common purpose
2) an organic material that comes from plants and animals
3) the act of planting trees on an area of land that has become empty or spoiled
4) long-lasting and environmentally-friendly
5) concepts, beliefs and principles that form the culture of an organisation
6) the amount of carbon dioxide produced by the activities of a person
7) a device that measures the amount of electric energy consumed by a residence
8) small power station which produces electricity from organic material
9) using as much energy as it is needed without wasting it
5. Read the article again and say whether the sentences are true (T) or false (F). Correct the false sentences.
1) For modern people it has become a tendency to try living in harmony with nature.
2) Going green means existing in a separated area, farming, and promoting a healthy lifestyle.
3) People live in eco-communities because they are concerned about environmental issues.
4) Eco-houses are built from modern building materials and equipped with high-tech appliances.
5) Eco-communities reuse water and recycle waste to provide for themselves.
6) The main aim of ecovillages is to know more about environmental problems and create a positive future for themselves.
7) The Findhorn ecovillage has received some awards for their nature protecting projects.
8) The Findhorn ecovillage is a home for people who want to bring about change in the world, teaching others.
6. Change the sentences into Personal or Impersonal Passive Constructions.
1) People believed that they had killed the animals during the night. a) It_____ b) They_____
2) Ancient people thought that the stars would fall on them.
3) They agree that the Egyptians have built the pyramids.
4) The reporters believed that the meeting would finish soon.
5) The newspapers are reporting that the most outstanding sportsmen represent their country.
6) Everyone thought that the government had shown no regard for public opinion.
7) They proved that the brown bear was an endangered species.
8) They expect that the cost of living is going up.
9) We have thought the volunteers are arriving today.
10) Citizens presume that the government is responsible for the accident.
7. Put a suitable verb in the appropriate form of the infinitive to complete the sentence.
1) Temperatures are reported_____ in the next days.
2) They are thought_____ under strict protection now.
3) The new iPhone is thought_____ next September.
4) The big bang is believed_____ 13.7 billion years ago.
5) They are thought_____ in a deserted cottage.
6) Scientists are believed_____ a possible cure for cancer.
7) More and more rain forests are reported_____ nowadays.
8) She is claimed_____ at 90km an hour.
8. What are the ways to leave a lesser impact on nature? How can people explore nature without harm? Have you heard of ecotourism? How do you think it differs from traditional tourism? Read the statements about ecotourism and try to predict whether they are true (T) or false (F). Listen to the recording and check.
a) «responsible travel to natural areas that conserves the environment and improves the wellbeing of local people».
b) «the meaning of ecotourism is travel that makes a positive impact on both the ECOlogy and ECOnomy of a given destination».
c) «tourism directed toward exotic natural environments, intended to help the environment and observe wildlife».
9. Listen to the speaker telling about ecotourism and put the headings a-f in the correct order 1-6, in accordance to the extracts of the recording you are going to hear.
__a) Is more infrastructure always bad?
__b)What is ecotourism?
__c) Is tourism always good?
__d)How popular is ecotourism?
__e) What exactly does ecotourism mean?
__f) Is ecotourism really possible?
10. Work in groups. Look at the two eco-holiday adverts and discuss the questions.
1) Which of the two eco-holidays do you think is more eco-friendly?
2) Which eco-holiday would your group choose to go on? Why?
3) Are there any eco-holidays in your country?
STAY IN NATURE & ECO SRI LANKA
Sri Lanka is full of perfect destinations. Being a small island it gives you the opportunity to travel across the country, taking in as many places as possible in the shortest possible time. A diversity of wildlife parks&nature reserves where you can see elephants, leopards and even the rare red slender loris; Visit the Sinharaja rain forest. Watch the blue whale and killer whales, or the adorable dolphins. Trek-up some scenic mountains, go white water rafting or climb over five thousand steps to the Holy Mountain. The list is endless... fascination never ends.
ACTIVE ADVENTURES NEW ZEALAND
New Zealand offers unique tours and experiences to help make your vacation perfect. Take the tour and let your guide show you the very best of beautiful New Zealand, combining it with your chosen activity: a relaxing cruise or a food&drink tour group. If you have a love for the outdoors – take a nature tour, go camping, stroll through beautiful gardens or hire a motorhome and travel around New Zealand at your own leisure.
11. Continue to work in groups. Your task is to prepare a leaflet or an information note with a brief presentation of one of eco-destinations in your country or abroad. For that you have to do a research and check whether the tour agent and the place itself are really eco-friendly. So, where would you advise to go and what to see there?
Матеріал до підручника Англійська мова 11 клас Нерсисян, Піроженко 2019