A visit to parts of Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, is like a trip back in time. People live in simple farm houses. Family members, including small children, all work in the fields. Crops are planted and harvested without modern farm technology.
Most Amish are easy to recognize and they are known as the Plain People, who came to the United States from Germany and Switzerland in the 1700s-1800s. They were expelled or chose to leave because of religious oppression. Most of them settled in Pennsylvania, where they were promised religious freedom.
The Amish permit few differences among their own people and live much like their ancestors did. They believe that hard work is important and enjoyable. They do not believe in depending on the world outside their community. Modern technology and things like electricity, central heating and indoor water pipes are not considered necessary; they heat their houses with wood stoves and get their water from wells. Instead of cars the Amish travel in buggies pulled by horses. Almost every Amish man can build a house, make furniture, and raise crops and animals. Almost every Amish woman can preserve food and make clothing or quilts.
The Amish pay taxes, but they do not really vote in elections and don’t accept help from the federal government. They live by rules explained in the Bible. They believe it is wrong to fight wars and such religious beliefs sometimes have brought the Amish into conflict with American law. Amish men refuse military service during war time. Instead, they are permitted to perform some other kind of public service.
Most Amish families have seven or eight children, but refuse to send them to public schools, so they attend their own community schools and only for 8 years. When boys and girls reach the age of 16, they have two years of rumspringa. During this period of time they can live the “American” life; wear make-up and jewelry, go to parties and have a job with American people. They have to decide for themselves whether they want to stay Amish and return to the old-fashioned way of living or become American! A very difficult choice, which often leaves confused and depressed young people on their own.
1) Amish people were invited to Pennsylvania where they could enjoy religious freedom.
2) The Amish have no private access to electricity or technology.
3) Amish people are very skillful and hardworking.
4) The Amish are law-abiding citizens and reject violence.
5) Rumspringa is the term used about the time young Amish “come of age”.
2. Read the text and choose the most appropriate answer.
Black Friday is an annual shopping day that falls after Thanksgiving in the United States of America. Every year people take advantage of the heavily discounted items that shops advertise for sale. For many people, Black Friday signals the beginning of the Christmas shopping period. Many employers even give their workers this day off work in addition to Thanksgiving Thursday.
Since about 2005, Black Friday has always been the busiest shopping day of the year. Many retailers open their stores in the wee hours of the morning to entice customers in to get the best deals, some even open at midnight on Thanksgiving. Many people in the USA will camp outside shops to ensure they are the first customers into the store on Black Friday. They may line up for hours, hoping to get a low price on a TV or laptop, but not everyone who wants one will get one, as there are simply not enough low-priced items to go around. Because of the number of people trying to bag the bargains, Black Friday sometimes becomes violent and people are injured. Fights break out over toys or people cutting in line. Since 2006 there have even been 7 deaths as a result of Black Friday hysteria. But most Black Friday events are safe and fun.
So where does the name “Black Friday” come from? It was first used in Philadelphia in the 1950s. The police called this day Black Friday because of the heavy traffic it drew. In the 1960s, stores tried to rename the day “Big Friday” but it did not stick. The name “Black Friday” continued to spread across the country and it seems that it is here to stay.
1) Which title best expresses the author’s purpose in writing this text?
a) Black Friday: Why You Should Go This Year
b) Black Friday: The Stuff That You Should Know
c) Black Friday: How to Save Money on the Big Day
2) Black Friday
a) is always the day after Thanksgiving.
b) a national holiday.
с) the start of the holiday season.
3) The name Black Friday was first used by
а) the stores as for a serious shopping day.
b) the police as for the time of the busiest roads.
с) the stores as for the day when they make a lot of money.
4) Which best explains the main idea of the second paragraph?
a) People stand in long lines on Black Friday.
b) Black Friday is the best time of the year to get good deals.
c) Black Friday is a really disappointing time of the year as deals are limited.
5) Which was not cited as one of the downsides of Black Friday?
a) Stores run out of high demand items quickly.
b) Nobody really saves any money on Black Friday.
c) Sometimes violence occurs at Black Friday events.
3. Complete the text with the appropriate form of each word given on the right.
Experts often refer to exercise, a 1)_____ diet, and plenty of rest as the three essential factors for good health in the stressful 2)_____ in which we live. According to leading doctors, 3)_____ is also extremely important to our general well-being. When we laugh, energy is 4)_____ around the body and it perks up the whole system. Our stress levels are reduced, which means laughter has a 5)_____ effect on us.
More 6)_____, perhaps, is the fact that laughter releases chemicals into the body. These 7)_____ are natural pain suppressants and they affect the immune system, helping to speed up healing processes and activating hormones which kill disease cells. In fact, in 1991, the first free Laughter Clinic was set up in Britain so that patients could have fun, which helps them to get 8)_____ more quickly.
According to one doctor, laughter is a total body experience in which all the major system of the body, such as muscles, nerves, heart, brain, and digestion, 9)_____ fully, so laughter is almost equivalent to a form of exercise. However, it is important to bear in mind that we are talking about laughter as 10)_____ to just a smile, in other words, “a belly laugh” says Howard Kent of the Yoga for Health Association.
So how are we to fill our lives with 11)_____? Every happy home should have a laughter library of joke books, classic cartoon books, collections of 12)_____ quotations, and audio cassettes of our favourite 13)_____, comedy videos, fun board games, comic plays, novels, and 14)_____ biographies.
4. Fill in the blanks in the text with only one word in each gap.
First language, also known 1)_____ mother tongue, is generally the language a person learns first. 2)_____, one can have two or more 3)_____ languages thus being a native bilingual or indeed multilingual. The order 4)_____ which these languages are learned is not necessarily the order of proficiency. Lacking in first language skills often makes learning 5)_____ languages difficult. Often a child learns 6)_____ basics of his or her first language or languages from his or her 7)_____. The term mother tongue, however, should not be interpreted 8)_____ mean that it is the language of one’s mother. For instance, in some paternal societies, the wife moves in with the husband and thus may have a different first language or dialect, 9)_____ the local language of the husband. Yet their children usually only speak their local 10)_____.
5. Listen to the four texts. Read the headlines below and decide on the best headline to go with each text. Note, there are twice more headlines than texts. Pick up the most appropriate ones.
1) The test that tells you how long you’ll live
2) The world’s future in space
3) Footballer can’t take a loss
4) Prince Charles donates to Welsh school
5) A finger prick test in common use
6) City in the sky
7) Footballer stands up for children
8) A happy occasion for schoolchildren
6. Listen to the recording again and tell whether the sentences are true (T) or false (F).
1) The paintings on the Wall were symbols of freedom and great hopes for a better future for all people of the world.
2) The Berlin Wall was painted by artists on both sides before it came down.
3) Some of the paintings have recently been restored.
4) The section of the wall that remains looked very different back in 1989.
5) The artwork is the only reason the wall in the story?
7. Rewrite the sentences using the words given so that the meaning is left the same.
1) My brother is too young to get married. NOT My brother ________________ to get married.
2) How long was the flight from London to Paris? TAKE How long did ________________ London to Paris?
3) I wasn’t able to understand much until I had studied for several years. BEFORE It was ________________ understand much.
4) Course fees must be paid in full before the course begins. ALL Students ________________ before the course begins.
5) It was difficult for Sarah to learn to read in Japanese. DIFFICULTY Sarah ________________ to read in Japanese.
6) The police had to find out whose fingerprints they were. BELONGED The police had to find out ________________ to.
7) The school has postponed the trip to London until next week. OFF The school trip to London ________________ until next week.
8) Mary accidentally crashed her father’s car. MEAN Mary did ________________ her father’s car.
9) It was wrong of you to copy the homework from your friend. COPIED You should ________________ the homework from your friend.
10) ”I’ll be home by midnight,” said Isadora. GET Isadora promised she ________________ midnight.
11) They are building a new supermarket in my neighbourhood. BUILT A new supermarket ________________ in the area where I live.
12) Being rich has no connection with being happy. NOTHING Being rich ________________ being happy
13) Has John caught a cold? DOWN Can you tell me if ________________ with a cold?
14)I’m not going to tolerate this untidiness any longer. UP I have no intention ________________ this untidiness any longer.
15) They had argued, but were friends again by the time of the party. MADE They ________________ and were friends again by the time of the party.
8. Work in groups. You and a group of friends are planning a street festival to take place in your neighbourhood in the summer. Here are some notes for you to discuss and decide on what to pick for the event. Remember to add some ideas of your own for a better organization.
– music – dance music? local folk singers?
– food – ask neighbours? use restaurant? cost?
– invitations – email everyone? posters?
– setting – open-air? concert hall? river bank? central square? city park?
– children – fun activities? competitions? or no small children invited?
9. You have received the following note from the editor of Teen Voice, the student magazine you sometimes write articles for. Write your article in 200-250 words.
In next month’s edition we’re going to focus on public life. I hope you’ll be able to write an article about the way people live in our town for us. Consider the following:
• housing situation;
• public transport;
• sports and leisure facilities;
• way of life;
• special traditions.
Матеріал до підручника Англійська мова 11 клас Нерсисян, Піроженко 2019